EF&EE offers consulting services in the measurement and control of air pollutant emissions from motor vehicles and other mobile sources, as well as conventional and alternative fuels and air quality issues worldwide. Since its founding in 1990, the firm has earned a reputation for innovative work in the area of mobile-source pollution control. In a series of projects for the World Bank, EF&EE staff have literally "written the book" on strategies for controlling motor vehicle emissions in developing countries, and have helped to apply these strategies in cities from Bangkok to Buenos Aires. In the U.S., EF&EE and its professional staff have played important roles in the phaseout of leaded gasoline, development and reevaluation of present diesel emission control strategies, development of technologies and emission regulations for natural gas vehicles, and development of innovative portable emission measurement systems (PEMS) for on-board measurement of mobile-source emissions.
EF&EE's experience and qualifications are particularly strong in the following areas:
- Design and evaluation of air quality management and mobile source emission control programs in both industrialized and newly-industrializing nations
- Emission measurements, control technology, and regulations for trucks, buses, railway locomotives, and other heavy-duty diesel vehicles
- Emission control technology and regulations for small engines used in motorcycles and utility equipment;
natural gas, ethanol, and other alternative "clean" fuels for vehicles
- Gasoline and diesel fuel formulation and emissions effects, mobile source emission measurements, emission factors, emission factor models such as MOBILE6 and PART5, and emission inventory development
- Vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) and other programs for controlling in-use emissions from both gasoline and diesel vehicles
- Air quality monitoring and measurement systems, including measurement and characterization of fine particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5)
- Environmental economics, cost-effectiveness, and policy analysis
EF&EE's project experience includes the whole field of motor vehicle emissions and their control. Areas of special expertise include: natural gas vehicles and vehicles using other "clean" alternative fuels; vehicle emissions testing and measurement; vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs and other in-use emissions enforcement mechanisms; "reformulated" gasoline and diesel fuels; emission control systems and aftertreatment technology for heavy-duty diesel trucks and buses; off-road vehicles such as railway locomotives, ships, and construction machinery; and small engines used in motorcycles and utility equipment. Highlights of EF&EE's experience are listed below.
Mobile-Source Emissions Measurement
- Ferryboat emissions testing protocol. Under contract to the San Francisco Bay Water Transit Authority, EF&EE developed a standard protocol for measuring emissions from ferryboats and applied this protocol to carry out actual emission measurements on three vessels while operating in passenger service. The protocol is also designed to measure the effects of advanced emission control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction.
- Preparation of instruction materials and delivery of a comprehensive seven-week training program for the staff of the new heavy-duty vehicle emission test facility established at Misr Laboratory, Cairo, Egypt.
- Design and management of a major vehicle emissions testing program for the Gas Research Institute. This program compared emissions from vehicles using gasoline, reformulated gasoline, and natural gas under a variety of realistic driving conditions, as well as the standard federal test procedure. The results of this program were used to quantify the emission benefits of NGVs under real-world driving conditions, and as support for mobile-source emission reduction credit calculations.
- Design and management of a long-term emissions durability study for the NGV Coalition and U.S. Department of Energy. In this study, EF&EE monitored in-use emissions from a fleet of gasoline and natural gas taxicabs do compare the deterioration in emissions over 300,000 miles of operation.
Emissions Testing with the R.A.V.E.M
Heavy-Duty Engine Emissions Control
- Technical support to the Sacramento Council of Governments in planning and executing the Sacramento Emergency Clean Air and Transport (SECAT) program. This program, funded by $70 million in state and federal transportation funds, is designed to enable Sacramento to maintain conformity with Clean Air Act requirements by reducing NOx emissions from on-road mobile sources by more than two tons per day in 2002, and three tons per day in 2005. Measures evaluated and included in this program include widespread use of "clean" gaseous and emulsion fuels, repowering existing trucks with cleaner diesel engines, and retrofitting trucks with advanced catalytic NOx control systems. EF&EE's contributions included carrying out the initial feasibility assessment, helping develop procedures to quantify baseline emissions and the emission benefits and cost-effectiveness of proposed projects, helping to establish criteria for project funding, and contributing to technical outreach to vehicle fleets and other entities.
- Technical support to the U.S. Department of Justice in its landmark case concerning the use of "defeat device" algorithms in heavy-duty diesel engine control systems - resulting in the largest settlement in the history of the Clean Air Act. As part of this effort, EF&EE analyzed the electronic engine control software for all major U.S. engine manufacturers to identify defeat devices and assess the implications of removing or altering them.
- Technical support to a major private solid waste company in obtaining funding for and deploying the largest privately-owned fleet of heavy-duty natural gas vehicles in the world, as well as other emissions and air quality issues. This included measurement of in-use emissions from garbage trucks, development of emission reduction and cost-effectiveness calculations, preparation of funding applications under the Carl Moyer, SECAT, and other funding programs, and development of an enhanced I/M program to maximize the offset credit allowed by ARB for natural gas truck use.
- Evaluation, under a subcontract to the U.S. EPA Office of Mobile Sources, of emission control technologies and compliance costs for the proposed 2004 heavy-duty diesel engine emission standards, the viability of aftertreatment devices to meet proposed 2007 emission standards, the proposed Tier 2 emission standards for utility equipment engines, and EPA's proposed emission standards for railway locomotives and locomotive engines.
- A study for the American Petroleum Institute, in which EF&EE reviewed the technical literature on selective catalytic reduction and NOx adsorption technologies for heavy-duty diesel engines, and evaluated their costs, cost-effectiveness, and sensitivity to fuel sulfur concentrations.
- Assistance to a major European manufacturer of selective catalytic reduction systems in demonstrating and marketing SCR systems for trucks, heavy equipment, and other mobile sources. This included installing and testing an SCR system in a tractor-trailer truck.
- Technical support to a manufacturer of heavy-duty dual-fuel (natural gas / diesel pilot) conversion systems in complying with emission regulations and obtaining California Air Resources Board certification.
- Evaluation of technological options and cost-effectiveness, and development of a regulatory strategy for controlling emissions from railway emissions in California. Options evaluated in this study for the California Air Resources Board included advanced diesel emission controls, alternative fuels (LNG), selective catalytic reduction, and operational changes to improve efficiency and reduce unnecessary emissions.
- Preparation of a protocol for quantifying the emission benefits of natural gas vehicles for the purpose of generating mobile-source emission reduction credits (MERCs). This document has been reviewed with EPA, and will serve as the basis for generation of MERCs and related credits by NGVs.
Mobile Source Emissions and Air Quality in Developing Countries
- Assistance to the Government of Sri Lanka in implementing vehicle emission control measures, principally a vehicle inspection and maintenance program. EF&EE designed and directed a roadside emission measurement program to determine the statistical distribution of diesel smoke opacity levels and of CO, HC, and smoke opacity levels from two-stroke motorcycles and three-wheelers. Based on these data, EF&EE recommended feasible initial I/M emission standards. In a second phase, these standards were applied to vehicle stopped at roadside, and failing vehicles were required to undergo repairs. Two-stroke vehicles and motorcycles were repaired at the roadside; diesel vehicles were referred to cooperating repair shops. Data on needed repairs and repair costs were collected and analyzed. In the final stage, EF&EE prepared recommendations for a nationwide network of test-only, contractor-operated, high-volume I/M centers. Other elements of the project included "training the trainers" for vehicle I/M inspections and emissions diagnosis, advising on the adoption of emission standards for new and newly-imported vehicles, and advising on fuel-quality issues, including the successful phaseout of leaded gasoline.
- Technical support to the Cairo Air Improvement Program, funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. This seven year, $60 million program was designed to reduce air pollution in Cairo by implementing a vehicle inspection and maintenance program, converting the transit bus fleet to compressed natural gas, relocating lead smelters, and helping the government to develop appropriate policies for air quality management. EF&EE had major technical support responsibilities for the CNG bus program and for establishment of a vehicle emission laboratory, and also provided technical support to the vehicle I/M and policy development tasks.
- Technical support to the World Bank in preparation of the Mexico City Transport Air Quality Management Project. This included preparing major parts of the Bank's sector study of air pollution In Mexico City, developing terms of reference and helping to supervise a major study of gasoline reformulation, and participating in the design of an improved vehicle I/M program, alternative fuel retrofit programs, vehicle replacement programs, and programs to strengthen vehicle emissions regulation and improve the scientific base for air quality management in Mexico City. A key aspect of the Sector Study was the development of consistent cost and cost-effectiveness estimates for the entire spectrum of mobile-source emissions control measures, and the creation of the first-ever marginal cost curve for vehicle emissions control.
- Participation as one of three international technical experts called in to review the progress of the CNG bus conversion program ordered by the Supreme Court of India to reduce particulate pollution levels in Delhi.
- Assistance to the World Bank in evaluating the emissions of urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases from different conventional and alternative-fueled bus technologies being considered for use in Mexico City.
- Development of an emission inventory and evaluation of emission control alternatives for diesel vehicles in São Paulo, Brazil.
- Training of personnel and execution of a pilot vehicle I/M program in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The results of this program were combined with worldwide experience to recommend a final I/M program design.
- Technical assistance to the World Bank and the Royal Thai Government in developing and implementing the Government's Action Plan for Motor Vehicle Emissions and Noise. This plan includes a comprehensive package of vehicle emission standards, I/M, fuel reformulation, alternative fuels, and monitoring of vehicle emissions to confirm program effectiveness. This included the development of I/M procedures and standards for noise, diesel smoke, and white smoke emissions from two-stroke motorcycles; development of equipment specifications for vehicle inspection centers and a vehicle emissions laboratory; and assistance in developing new-vehicle emission standards for motorcycles and diesel vehicles. EF&EE subsequently designed and managed an emission testing program to determine particulate and gaseous emission factors from diesel vehicles and two-stroke motorcycles in Bangkok.
- Evaluation of the costs, emission reductions, and cost-effectiveness of different emission control technologies and alternative fuels for diesel trucks and buses and for three-wheeler taxis as part of the Bangkok Air Quality Management Project.
- Preparation of the air quality component of the World Bank Argentina Pollution Management Project. This included development of an emission inventory and evaluating the emission reductions and cost-effectiveness of different levels of emission standards and alternative fuels for trucks, buses, and light-duty diesel and gasoline vehicles in Buenos Aires. The effects of increasing taxes on diesel fuel and residual oil were also evaluated.
- Drafting key technical chapters and technical/editorial review of the remainder of the book Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles, published by the World Bank. A joint effort of the U.N. Environmental Program and the World Bank, this book includes a comprehensive summary of motor vehicle emissions and emissions control strategies for developing countries, and is intended to provide technical and policy guidance on emissions control to developing nations worldwide.
- Design and specification of an air quality monitoring network for Buenos Aires.
- Estimation of emission reductions and emission control costs for different pollution control measures in support of the World Bank's cost-benefit study of air pollution control measures for Santiago, Chile.
- Design and implementation of a field measurement program to characterize ambient air quality levels in Santiago and Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.